How to tackle a writing session (when your project is done)

writing session

All writers have that moment where you’re not technically busy with a big project anymore but you still have the urge to write (after all it’s addictive) or perhaps you simply want to keep the habit of writing regularly from slipping from you.
Whatever your reason is; now you’re sitting there in front of your computer (or notebook) but you have no clue what to write.
So I gathered the ways that I handle these days in the hopes that they help you.

 

First I would like to set some form of goal for myself to work towards for the day. That way I am focused and less likely to abandon my writing in the middle of a session.
There are two ways in which I can set my writing goal.

 

The first is a timed goal.

Back when I was still starting out with my writing and I still typed slowly I would give myself the goal of writing for an hour. This worked because it’s easy enough to just set a timer on my phone and then no matter how badly I write, or how slowly, I will still have given attention to my writing.

 

The second is a word count goal.

These days, whenever I sit down to write I give myself the goal of typing 1500 words which is approximately one scene from a story. These 1500 words can be achieved through any method.
It can be three flash fiction pieces or one long scene. Anything goes as long as I meet my goal.

 

Once I have my goal I need to figure out what I want to write (obviously)

I’ve got three exercises that I prefer to use for this.

Turn a melody into fiction.

When I was little I had an art instructor who would put crayons in front of us and turn on some music. We were then expected to listen to the music and start drawing lines that we feel represented it. A happy song was bright colour and a sad song was cold colours.
So essentially you have to represent the song in a different medium. You still with me?

Now, what you can try is to put on a song (perhaps one without lyrics) and then listen to it. You must pick up on the tone of the music and let it inspire your creativity. If this music was describing a place what place would it be? If it was describing a person how would they look? If this song was a scene from a story what events would take place?
Play around with it and write as much as you can.
This is one of my favourite exercises.

Use a prompt.

They are all over the internet.
My favourite prompts come from the fake red head. Her prompts are a lot more creative and witty than most prompts on the internet. I feel like the prompts honestly set my imagination on fire and that is why they work well for me.
Again just basically pick a prompt and roll with it. Try to get as much words down as possible.

 

Lastly – read through your old scrap writing and see if anything inspires you.

If you don’t already know – I am a big believer in the principle of saving all your old writing because no matter how bad the writing is you never know what a good idea is.
So if you are like me with a bunch of half ideas scribbled down somewhere or pieces of flash fiction saved on your computer then go read through it and see if anything jumps out at you.
Ask yourself if you can continue with this piece or if it connects to something else you’ve written.
Perhaps you had a cool magic system in one piece but the character wasn’t so great; then go right ahead and write a different version with the right character.
Play around with your old ideas because they might just spark some new ones.

 

Those are my favourite exercises and I promise you that I do not recommend anything that I don’t personally think will benefit you.
With that said I suggest that if you have a time sensitive goal you know where your recourses are beforehand so you don’t have to start googling things during your precious writing time. If the internet distracts you too much it’s better to just turn it off and stumble along on your own.

I hope this helped and as always if you liked this post please share it or comment. I would love to hear your favourite method of tackling a writing session.

My top 3 resources for writers.

3 writing resources

The only things a writer truly needs to write is an idea, some basic language skills and something to write on.
Yet if you do some digging you’ll find dozens of resources on the internet designed to make writing easier for us. Some resources are to inspire us while others are to help as plan or write faster.
I figured that since I’ve been writing for a couple of years now I might as well share with you my favourite resources so you can benefit from them as well.

The first one is obvious and you probably already know it exists.

 

Pinterest…

I tell people about the magic of Pinterest all the time and I still stick to it. Pinterest is an image based social media where you can see other people’s ideas, creations, thoughts and more. I use it throughout my writing process.
It has helped me pick names and faces for characters and I’ve even formed entire plots around some of the opinions that are shared on pinterest. So I suggest you open your Pinterest account and start searching. Look for photos and quotes.

 

Bibisco.

This one you probably haven’t heard of yet but it’s one of my favourite things ever.
It’s a computer program that helps you organise your planning. I specifically use it to help me shape my characters because it has built in character questionares (that actually work)
My experience is that it’s easy to use, it helps motivate and it’s just generally well rounded.
You can even write your story on it but I prefer not to because it just doesn’t compare to word’s Spelcheck.
I used this last year when I got stuck with Pink and it helped me slide past the probable very easily.

 

Finally Hemingway.

Hemingway is the ultimate spellchecker site.
You can copy and paste entire pieces of your writing into it and it will tell you which sentences are confusing. Which sentences are written with a passive voice and which words can be replaced.
It helps you trim your work and round off all the edges.

 

I hope that you try at least one of these things because they have helped me as a writer a whole lot and I wish for them to help you as well.
If you like this post and found it helpful please share it or comment.
I want to know what resources you would recommend. (I’m always looking for new stuff)

(Please know I only recommend things that I honestly feel you would benefit from)

Newbie lesson #1 – Planning out characters.

For the past few weeks I’ve been a part of the Young Writer’s workshop – which has been awesomely put together by Brett Harris and Jaquelle Crowe.

What I love about the workshop the most so far is the facebook group that is filled with the most awesomely amazing nerds ever. They all support each other, answer questions and read each other’s work. (I got my first beta reader btw!)

I really love being a part it!

It does mean that I’m exposed to a lot of brand new writers though. Writers who haven’t written their first novel yet. Writers who don’t know how to write that fist sentence or how to plot that first character. There are questions being asked on the group every day.

Inspired by their questions, I have decided that I want to write a writing lesson on one of the basics of writing.

How to create a character.

So here it is.

How to create a character – My own method.

In my time writing I’ve discovered that no matter how bad the rest of your story is, people will still love it if you’re characters are well written. That’s not a promise but that is how it works for me. For me characters are the heart of a story.

So that’s why it’s the first thing I want this series to cover.

Let’s get into it.

The first thing you need to do to create a character is grab a piece of paper. I use a normal A4 sheet with lines on it. You will hopefully not need too much more paper than that at first.

Now what do you put on the paper?

(there is an example of how it should look at the bottom of the post. Fill in sheet style)

Name:

At the top of your paper write down your character’s name. If you can’t think of anything go check out this baby naming site.

I like using a name with a meaning behind it, because that way I already have the first aspect of my character figured out. (example: Nava- beautiful. Bellona – goddess of war)

Gender:

In the next line write down either male or female… simple right?

Age:

Third line is age. I was taught that if you’re a new writer try to keep your characters around your own age – give or take two years. That way you can relate to them and as a result they’ll be more realistic. If you’re a grown writer who wants to write children’s books you may skip this advice.

Appearance:

Now the fourth part is where things get exciting.

In about 6 lines (on the paper) explain how your character looks. Go into detail.

When I was just starting out I thought that all you needed to describe a character was eye and hair colour. I was very naive back then.

No – eye and hair colour is not what takes to make a character appear to your reader. Instead try to go into depth in how your character looks at certain times of the day. Think about how they move. Think about the tiny scars that cover their arms etc.

Good things to use in descriptions are how they move, what kind of body build they have, how they dress, if they have long thin fingers or short chubby ones. These details help make a character real so take a minute to write down as much as you can think of.

Where necessary also add how they feel about their appearance.

Hermione had large front teeth. She hated them.

Doesn’t that give way more of an impression than eye colour?

Character’s life

Now take another six lines and fill in a bit about the character’s past and present.

Before you can write a story you need to know what mindset your character is currently in.  So go ahead and write down what you have figured out about them by now.

Here you should basically start by writing a quick overview of the character which can be prompted with questions such as. What social class is your character in? How caring is this character? How many family members does this character have, who do they care for the most etc.

Next think about their past. What have they lived through? What was a couple of defining points in their lives? Who helped them along the way?

Lastly what is your character’s current mindset? What is your character busy doing with in their life before your story begins? What is your character doing day in, day out? Does your character have any goals?

This will help you know who your character is when you just start off with a project.

That’s it. Those are five simple areas that if answered correctly give you a character.

Now write.

The next step would be to honestly observe your character. I’m going to give you a scene and then you just place your character into the scene and write it out so you can see what kind of character you have.

This helps because it sets you into the mindset of your character, and if the character acts out of the guidelines you built, you’ll be able to decide how to fix that problem before you start with your main project.

Scene

Your character is about to have a lesson in (insert interest of choice) and is laughing with their friend to the side when their instructor barks at them to come show off what they had been practicing the week before.

How your character approaches the lesson is up to you.

Got it? Go.

When you’re done, feel free to share your writing with me. I love reading how other writers interpret my prompts.

untitled

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DIY writer’s journal

It is no secret that I have a fondness for notebooks. Big thick ones with pretty covers, thin little back ones, those with lines and those without. All notebooks are perfectly acceptable to me.

 

writers-notebook

 
Two weeks ago I wrote about how much I love New Years because of that energy it gives.
The same principle goes for a nice, clean notebook.
A notebook in and of itself is just a bunch of pages with potential. You can use it for traditional journalling, to keep a schedule or bullet journal. I don’t want to talk about that – what I want to talk about today is one of my favourite types of notebooks and that is the writer’s notebook.

The topic of this month’s posts is inspiration and this week I decided to do a bit of a DIY tutorial instead of a writing lesson. So find an open space and gather your ingredients because today I’m sharing with you how to start a writer’s journal.

 

How to put together a writer’s journal.

 

Part one: the outside.

This is not a necessity but I’m decorating my own notebook this year. Normally I’d just buy those pretty books that are already decorated but this year I’m on a bit of a budget and those are almost six times more pricy than the plain notebooks that you can buy anywhere.

So I’m going to be decorating it myself but if you prefer to buy a decorated notebook then just skip this step.

Ingredients:
A plain notebook.
Some ribbon.
General art supplies (E.g. scissors & glue)
Coloured paper or anything else that you feel like decorating with.

Here is a pick of my stuff.

img_9822

 

Now that everything is gathered you should start by simply wrapping it in a base paper.
I did mine in black paper, because I really like the clean and elegant that black paper gives.

From there off on I simply decorated as I saw fit. I suggest you name it and of course make it look pretty to you.

img_9824

You can see that the name of the book (idea pile) is written in the most OCD bugging way ever. This is simply my personal way of creating journals because I like them to not be completely clean and straight forward. I want them to catch my own attention and to invite imperfection into my work.
Inspiration often comes in really raw and a backwards. So if I tell myself I have to do everything perfect I would never write a word.
You can do yours however you want but I really suggest you adopt this mentality whenever you write in your little book. You need to allow yourself to write gibberish at the start.

I then went and did my little pen holder slash bookmark which is basically just a ribbon with some stretchy material stapled onto the back. I cut small holes so it could hold my pen and then decorated it with only one single button instead of the six that I bought originally.

Here’s a photo!

img_9826
This is the end result of my notebook, so let’s opens it up and discuss what goes into a notebook like this one.

 

The inside of a writer’s notebook.

First I started off by writing my name on the inside.
You see when I was little we were given these little girly diaries with the small lock and everything. On the inside there was always a space to write down your name so anyone who found it would know that it’s yours. I still do this today because of more reasons than simply for if I lose it.
I like acknowledging that the little book is mine because for some reason it helps certify to me that this little book does indeed belong to me and everything I write in it is my own. It’s like saying this little book and all the wonderful pieces of junk on the inside is mine. So hands off.
This of course goes along with some contact details for in case I do actually lose it.

 
The second page is dedicated to a simple list of my projects.
This probably shows more about my personality than I would like you to know because it really highlights how goal driven I am. I like seeing what I’m busy with right at the beginning of the book so I can have parameters within to work so I can keep focused.
Not everything that goes into the little book has to do with my projects but I still like reminding myself that these are the most important things I’m working towards and that I shouldn’t let myself get too sidetracked by all the inspiration I gather.

 
This leads me to the third and fourth pages which are dedicated to story seeds.
If I have a vague idea that can be summed up into a line or two it goes onto these two pages.
This has always been one of my favourite parts of my writer’s notebook because these ideas tend to come at bizarre moments and later on when I feel like writing I can use them for prompts that will almost certainly inspire me.

 

Those are the only really set pages I have for any notebook so I’m quickly going to give you a list of 5 other things you can put into a writers notebook.

 
• Progress report: You know those main projects that I showed earlier on page two? Yes pick one of them and find a way to measure your progress with it. Set a few goals within the project and then make tick in little boxes as you work towards it or something.

 
• Character file: Draw a stick figure of your character and then get writing. Figure out what a character’s name is and work on making them real within the pages of your notebook.

• Short practices: This one should be really obvious. If you feel like writing grab some inspiration and just start writing anything and everything down. Focus on what words you use or how you are expressing the scene. Even if it’s not perfect at first you’ll have a solid idea down on paper when you’re done.

• Draw plot maps: There are different kinds of plot maps and so I suggest you go figure out which kind works for you and then you can use your notebook to build your ideas into stories.

• Write down encouragement: This is a little silly of me to say for this kind of notebook. Normally encouragement goes into something more like a personal journal but I think you can work it into this sort of notebook too. When you feel unmotivated just go to a page and after taking a deep breath write down all the reasons why you love writing. It’s a good exercise and then if you feel unmotivated again later you can return to it and be reminded why you write.

 

I really believe that writing on paper is good for you because it doesn’t have a backspace, which I think is really important when you’re just trying to get ideas down.

 

There are more things you can put into a notebook but I’m going to leave you here and let you go and experience it yourself. So go now and finish that notebook of yours and get writing.

 
Although, before you go – answer me this:
Are you new to the whole writing journey or have you been on your way for years now?
Any comments are welcome!

New year and a new writing lesson

Happy new year – the phrase you’re probably hearing, slash seeing for the hundredths time between today and yesterday. Gosh even I’m starting to get tired of the phrase and I absolutely love this time of year.

It’s very possibly my favourite time of year. January just has that energy you know, where people are slowly rolling their shoulders and straightening their backs so they can charge this new beginning. There are kids who are excited for going to first grade – or in other words the “big kid’s school”. There are young adults who are finally planning a year that doesn’t involve school and who looks forward to meeting new people in university.

It’s also a time where people set goals and create lists and let themselves start to dream about the new year and all the things and places and people they’ll see during it.

I myself have been a complete sucker to the whole experience this year. You see what I didn’t write about in December – like I should have – is that I’m walking into 2017 with a new hairstyle, wardrobe, mindset, and goals with a decent holiday behind my back where I did a bunch of exciting stuff that range from spelunking, to swimming and movie marathon-ing and many more things.

New Year new me – that’s the other thing I’m getting tired of hearing; but I love it anyway.

So with all the excitement of it bumbling inside me I decided on a proper topic for this month’s blog posts and that is… inspiration.

This is becoming the ultimate cliché for me to write about because I’m certain I’ve written a blog post series on it nearly every year for the past two years.

Who cares – I’m doing it again. This time, a little different.

No ‘you can do it’ inspirational speeches. No ‘how to gather up inspiration’ tutorials, or anything else like that.

Instead I’m going to make this first post really simple and about one definite topic.

How to find inspiration in the world around you.

Life isn’t always easy but there are lot of story ideas hidden around you if you care to look for it. (Yes this whole post is writing related)

So let’s get into how you can search and find those ideas and inspirations.

Mindset: Positivity.

I don’t know if those who know me would agree with me on this – but despite the fact that I struggle with positivity, I like to think of myself as a positive person who sees the bright side in most situations.

It’s an important skill that, like most others, I taught myself.

I mentioned this right off because I believe that being positive is part of why we manage to see inspiration in bad places.

Somewhere in the past two years I was feeling really anxious to that point where my lungs seemed to close off and I felt as if I couldn’t breathe. I clutched my head and sank to the floor as I tried to dislodge the twisted thoughts running through my head. Then suddenly I found myself smiling amidst the bad feeling. Not because I was feeling any better but because it occurred to me then that at least I can write about that specific feeling as well. If my characters felt scared or anxious I had real life experience to draw from. That’s pretty cool isn’t it?

So I’ve been cultivating this sense of positivity so whenever I’m in a bad situation I can actually see all sides to it and then later exploit it for a creative base.

Not to mention, being positive actually makes you enjoy the happy moments more too. You’re mind is more likely to notice all the details of a moment when you’re positive about it than when you’re negative.

(Please note that there is a difference between being positive and ignoring all your problems. Please let me know if you want to delve deeper into this topic)

Action: Sight seeing.

The second part of seeing the world in a more inspiring way is to actually go out into it.

At home I come up with about three story ideas daily. That may sound like quite a lot but it’s not really anything compared to what I find when I’m away from home.

This holiday I’ve been on so many great places; I’ve seen mountains that look like giants, oceans that smell so strongly of salt that I can nearly choke on the air just standing on the beach, horses that gallop along muddy tracks, rivers that cut deep paths though the ground and many more wonderful things.

Sure you can read four to five books about owls on the internet but it’s not the same as going out and seeing an owl face to face.

The more input you get from the world around you the more things you have to add to the inner world of your stories, it’s as simple as that.

Input: Read a lot.

Let’s say it again.

Read. A. Lot.

Anything and everything with words on was meant to be read and so you should go right ahead and do just that. Read books in the genre that you want to write in – this will give you an idea of how to write. Read books outside of the genre that you want to write in – this will give you insights that your genre can’t give. Read magazines and brochures. Read those pamphlets at the doctor’s office; even if they’re scarier than the doctor himself. Read advertisements and wonder about how much work and study is behind it – was there an artist involved? Any psychology?

Read with an open mind and let it sweep into you and your work.

This will not only add to your skill level but also give you more ideas. It give you things to think on and show you that funny books is just as good as depressing books. You’ll find ideas that you wouldn’t have even thought about before.

Lastly: Talk to people.

People are these complicated bundles of stories, passions, sadness, hopes and fears.

There is this joke among writers where we say we’re going to put people who cross us into our books and then kill them.

Violent? Yes. Funny? Maybe.

More to the point though, putting fragments of people and into your stories isn’t technically a bad thing. You want your characters to be people and not just clichés.

So talk to people and actually listen to what they have to say. That funny story that they tell every time you hang out with them might actually be perfect for your next book (even if it is simply back-story)

The heart of a story (or at least mine) is in the characters and so you want people to relate to them. Pay attention to the people around you so you can integrate that human aspect into your characters. Each person you meet has their own story to tell and so have potential to be a character.

There you go then, I’m done. Now remember to keep a phone or a little booklet with you at all times so when these ideas strike, you can jot them down without any hassle.

On my phone I have colour note for this (although if you have any other apps to suggest go ahead) and in my handbag I carry a notebook at all times. (A tutorial about setting ne up will be coming out next week)

Now you’re going to go out there and enjoy this New Year with all its energy for change. Go and write that thing you’ve always wanted to write and most of all enjoy the journey.

Tell me where do you get most of your inspiration?

Any and all comments welcome!

Four NaNoWriMo tips

nanowrimo

It’s just past the second week of NaNoWriMo and things are getting tough. I’ve been seeing it everywhere; the lack of sleep is finally taking a toll on people, plots are failing and jobs and children are screaming for attention.
I’ve seen this happen every time I’ve participated in NaNoWriMo and so for this year I decided I’ll share with you my top four tricks to finishing a successful NaNoWriMo.

These tricks are easy and simple and in fact I would call most of them habits instead of tricks but the main thing you need to understand before I share them with you is that they are ultimately successful when paired with the right set of mind. I’ll explain this for each trick so let’s get to it.

Trick number one – flashcards.

Often times you go sit in front of your computer (or other writing instrument) and you just have nothing to write. Your story might have come across a problem such as having a flat middle or perhaps you’re actually reaching the end of your novel even though you’re still far from 50 000 words. Now you suddenly have a mindset problem because you don’t know what to write, and you don’t feel like doing that whole free writing thing because face it sometimes free writing sucks sometimes, and you want to be certain that you’re writing something good. So you simply don’t write anything and you fall a day or two behind.
So your mindset here is I have nothing to write so I’m not going to write.
This has a very simple fix and that is my flash card method.
Take a pile of empty note cards (just cut up some paper) and on the first five cards write down a simple description of the previous five scenes you wrote. Now it’s time to brainstorm and ask yourself what you want to add to this story. Perhaps it’s a side plot about redemption or more scenes that shows the dynamics of your characters or… whatever really.
Break this down into scenes and write down one scene per card for the rest of the flash cards.
The reason I wanted you to write down the previous five scenes you wrote is because often when we review what we’ve written then ideas start coming in for what we want to write.
Now you have a couple more ideas right there with you to keep you going when you are running out of writing juice and you can know what you’re going to write next. The trick about the flash card method is to be constantly adding to your pile of flash cards. If you get an idea write it on a flash card and add it to the pile.

Trick number two – write in the morning.

You’ve probably heard this advice before: write in the morning because that’s when your mind is freshest… I think that’s nonsense because I really take very long to fully wake up but this advice does hold for a different reason.
The morning is your only real set time of day. It doesn’t matter if you have the best schedule ever things in everyday life goes slightly off course all the time. Perhaps your mother tells you to study more in the afternoon or for a different example your children’s school runs a little late or even just the traffic that day isn’t great. All of this is potential threats to your writing. All of this is trying to stop you from reaching your word goal.
In the morning though there isn’t anything in your day yet to throw you off course and the chances that something will disturb you is much smaller.
Why this has to do with mindset, is because all those other things are often an excuse to not write as you tell yourself that today you can’t – and so you won’t. In the morning though you’re willpower is at its strongest and there isn’t a good reason to not write.

Trick three – Word sprint without spell-check.

A word sprint for those of you who don’t know is when you set a timer and try to write as fast as possible in that time.
The real part of this trick though is to turn off your spellchecker.
You see I have a lot of trouble ignoring words that have a red line under them. I also have a grammar check and that is just as bad because I constantly go back and fix what I’m writing as I’m writing.
It’s not really a horrible thing to do in most cases and I have never heard of anyone completely stopping with their writing because of spell-check, but for NaNoWriMo we’re pressed for speed and it almost certainly is slowing you down.
So turn it off. Write for fifteen minutes without your spell-check (I like typing with my eyes closed) and then when the time is up turn it back on and do a quick fix – which means no deleting any sentences and focusing on grammar and spelling.

Trick four – Carry a notebook everywhere.

I know that men don’t carry handbags like women so for the male writer this one might be a little tougher but if possible I really suggest carrying a physical notebook with you during NaNoWriMo. ( A phone will suffice but I like real paper for this more.)
Why I suggest this is because to stay excited for your novel you need a reminder of it with you when you are not in front of a computer. A notebook is good for this because that way you can write down your ideas and everything, which will keep your mind excited for your novel until you can, once again, return to a computer.

 
As I said these tricks are more habits than anything else and is really simple to implement into everyday life. (Something that NaNoWriMo isn’t always)

I haven’t done a post like this in a while but I hope it helps with the rest of the month.

Now share with me, what tricks do you use during NaNoWriMo to keep you going? Is there something similar to the tricks I mentioned or is it something completely different?
All comments welcome!

Time to make a scene.

scene
Sorry for not posting a proper post last week I was sick. It seems to be a bug that is going around the area and I still cough on occasion but all in all I’m feeling much better. I might even try to convince my parents that I’m well enough to go on a Poke run (I’ve got Pokemon go and it’s great!)

Today I would like to give you the ultimate guide to planning and writing a scene.

A scene is one of the most basic things in writing and probably not something you need explained to you, but since I write my novels scene by scene I figured I might as well take a look at how I plan these.

A scene is not a chapter by the way, it is the smaller bits that a chapter is made out of. A scene is a single time and place in a story and a good way to see when a scene ends is when the character changes location.

A scene, like every other part of writing is made out of different elements but in this case we’ll look at the two main elements.

 
1. The first element to a scene is the sense of time and place.
In each scene you want to paint a picture to your reader so they can know where your character is. Even if your character is in pitch-black darkness you need to show this to your reader.
2. The second element is that something needs to happen.
The general idea is that if a scene does not further the story then it’s not worth having in the story and you might as well take it out. Have you ever read a story where they take nearly three pages just to describe grass and in the mean time the characters aren’t doing anything? These kind of books are boring and quickly makes the reader lose interest.

So those are the basic elements of a scene.
Setting and plot.

Now you can take it further when planning a scene and ask yourself a couple of questions before you start writing.
Questions such as what needs to happen? Where does this scene take place? Who is in this scene? What conflict is in this scene?

Here is a list of questions that I made.

5 scene questions

 

The thing I want to close off with is scene structure.
You get many different types of scene from 6000 word monstrosities to 500 words. (the rule of thumb is 1500)

All scenes have a sense of structure though which is something you probably learned in high school. Before writing a scene you are encouraged to structure it.

The most common structure looks like this.

  • Show character and their goal
  • Give them a problem.
  • Make your character get passed the problem for a resolution.
  • Repeat for the next scene.

 

If you do it right then something has changed for your character and your story has furthered.

This might not work for all scenes but is a good guideline to keep in mind.

 

This is not my longest writing post but I hope it helped anyway and that I won’t wait too long to write another one. If you have any specific topic you’d like me to write about feel free to mention it in the comments.